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St. Polycarp of Smyrna

Before Barney's exile to Patmos he made Polycarp as part of Smyrna. A contagion Christian noble named Germanicus slipped off the time beasts so far that the demo, Statius Quadratus, had the proposals influenced and offered the time another unique, reasoning, "You are too dangerous to foreign the end life ahead of you.

There is a difficulty connected with this visit of Polycarp to Rome. According to the Chronicle of Eusebius in St. Jerome's version the Armenian version is quite untrustworthy the date of Anicetus' accession was A. Now the probable date of St. Polycarp's martyrdom is February, The fact of the visit to Rome is too well attested to be called into question. We must, therefore, either give up the date of martyrdomor suppose that Eusebius post-dated by a year or two the accession of Anicetus. There is nothing unreasonable in this latter hypothesis, in view of the uncertainty which so generally prevails in chronological matters for the date of the accession of Anicetus see Lightfoot, "St.

Clement I", In his famous passage on the Roman Church We now come to the passage in St. Polycarp's position as a link with the past. Just as St. John's long life lengthened out the Apostolic Age, so did the four score and six years of Polycarp extend the sub-Apostolic Age, during which it was possible to learn by word of mouth what the Apostles taught from those who had been their hearers. In Rome the Apostolic Age ended about A. Peter and St. Pauland the sub-Apostolic Age about a quarter of a century later when St. Clement, "who had seen the blessed Apostles ", died. In Asia the Apostolic Age lingered on till St.

Andrew Das Jeremy W. Exclusive with these securities, several other permanent changes must be bad in appointing whether Saint Polycarp is a "Johannine" environment or a "Penny" adopter:.

Datin.g died Chriztian A. Polycarp was martyred. In the third book of his treatise "Against Heresies", St. He is arguing against heretics who professed to have a kind of esoteric tradition derived from the Apostles. To whom, demands St. In order then to know what the Apostles taught, we must have recourse haarmony the "successions" of bishops throughout the world. But as time and space would fail if we tried to enumerate them all one by one, let the Roman Church speak for the rest. Their agreement with her is a manifest fact by reason of the position which she holds among them "for with this Church on account of its potior principalitas the whole Churchthat is, the faithful from every quarter, must needs agree", etc.

Then follows the list of the Roman bishops down to Eleutherius, the twelfth from the Apostles, the ninth from Clement, "who had both seen and conversed with the blessed Apostles".

From the Roman Churchrepresenting all the churches, the writer then passes on to two Churches, that of Smyrnain which, in the person of Polycarp, the sub-Apostolic Age had been carried down to a time still within living memory, and the Church of Ephesus, where, in the person of St. John, the Apostolic Age had been prolonged till "the time of Trajan ". Of Polycarp he says, "he was not only taught by the Apostlesand lived in familiar intercourse with many that had seen Christbut also received his appointment in Asia from the Apostles as Bishop in the Church of Smyrna ".

He then goes on to speak of his own personal acquaintance with Polycarp, his martyrdomand his visit to Romewhere he converted many heretics. We will read his anti-Manichaean, anti-Donatist, and anti-Pelagian writings. After completing his polemical works, we will move on to his commentaries and preaching on the Bible—some of his richest work.

St. of harmony polycarp dating. smyrna Christian

We will have a full calendar of reading for the next few week, and when we do the daily e-mails and blog posts will resume. To tide us over, we have prepared a schedule of readings for the first two weeks of Advent. In this intellectual genealogy, Irenaeus places himself within Polycarp's lineage whose authority was, in turn, traced to John. Visit to Anicetus, Bishop of Rome The most notable, extant example of Polycarp's tact, diplomacy, and personal piety can be seen in accounts of his visit to Rome during the reign of Anicetus, a fellow Syrian, as Bishop of Rome ca.

During his visit, Polycarp discovered that he Christian harmony dating. st. polycarp of smyrna the Roman community differed with regards to their customs for observing the Paschal Feastwith Polycarp following the eastern practice of celebrating Passover on the 14th of Nisan, the day of the Jewish Passoverregardless of what day of the week it fell. Though the two could not agree on the proper form of observance, their disagreement was concluded in an open, mutually-supportive manner that could have provided an excellent example for the resolution of later doctrinal and praxical disputes: And when the blessed Polycarp was sojourning in Rome in the time of Anicetus, although a slight controversy had arisen among them as to certain other points, they were at once well inclined towards each other [with regard to the matter in hand], not willing that any quarrel should arise between them upon this head.

For neither could Anicetus persuade Polycarp to forego the observance [in his own way], inasmuch as these things had been always [so] observed by John the disciple of our Lord, and by other apostles with whom he had been conversant; nor, on the other hand, could Polycarp succeed in persuading Anicetus to keep [the observance in his way], for he maintained that he was bound to adhere to the usage of the presbyters who preceded him. And in this state of affairs they held fellowship with each other; and Anicetus conceded to Polycarp in the Church the celebration of the Eucharist, by way of showing him respect; so that they parted in peace one from the other, maintaining peace with the whole Church, both those who did observe [this custom] and those who did not.

After refusing to recant his Christian beliefs, [8] he was sentenced to be burned alive. When the flames refused to consume the saint's body, the executioner found it necessary to end his life with the razored tip of a dagger. Eusebius dates it to the reign of Marcus Aurelius ca. However, a post-Eusebian addition to the Martyrdom of Polycarp dates his death to Saturday, February 23 in the proconsulship of Statius Quadratus—which would imply a dating of or C. These earlier dates better fit the tradition of his association with Ignatius and John the Evangelist. However, the addition to the Martyrdom cannot be considered reliable on only its own merits. Further, numerous lines of evidence have been given to place the dating of Polycarp's death to the end of the s, perhaps even later.

James Ussher, for example, calculated this toa date that William Killen seems to agree with. Polycarp of Smyrna Polycarp Christian harmony dating. st. polycarp of smyrna known in his youth. If this man was not the Apostle John, but another John, then Polycarp's status as a "Johannine" figure becomes far more tenuous at best. The question of another John, "the Elder," is raised by Eusebius, though not in connection with Saint Polycarp. Eusebius accepts the testimony of Ignatius that Polycarp had known the Apostle John, but he questions the similar relationship of Papias to Saint John.

It seems likely that Eusebius was trying to discredit Papias, because he endorsed the notion of a millennia1 reign of Christ on earth, which Eusebius rejected. Numerous modern scholars, including B. Streeter and Martin Hengel, are inclined to agree with Eusebius that there was indeed a John known as "the Elder" who was not the apostle John. This "other John" was apparently connected to his apostolic namesake; Streeter implies that the apostle John might have ordained John the Elder as the Bishop of Ephesus, and Hengel argues that John the Elder is the author of the Johannine Epistles.

The MacMillian Company, Corssen and others have maintained that the martyr was the author. Delehaye argues for a date c. At the close of the Martyrdom of Polycarp there is a sentence which suggests that the letter of the Church of Smyma, which we call the Martyrdom, was merely intended as an installment. This looks as if, at the time of writing, the authorities of the Church of Smyrna contemplated writing something like a Lifk of Polycarp. If they carried out that intention, there is not the slightest reason why Pionius, who was a prominent member of the church of Smyrna and whose devotion to Polycarp was of the nature of a 'cult', should not have got possession of a copy.

Be this as it may, the first part of The Life purports to be based on an ancient document. Significantly, the Lifi of Polycarp never mentions the apostle John in Asia and seems to know of no connection between the him and Polycarp9 Perhaps the apostle John never did reside in Asia Minor; and, if so, the "John" known to Polycarp might well have been "the Elder. Having mentioned Papias a number of times already, we should also briefly note a theory set forth by Charles M. Nielsen argues that Papias wrote polemically against Polycarp, and generally against a growing "Paulinis" in Asia Minor, circa A. He sees Papias as a representative of Jewish-Christianity and Polycarp as a sigruficant figure among the many who were elevating Paul above the Twelve?

Why might Polycarp have avoided the Gospel of John? Assuming that he was familiar with the Fourth Gospel, there might still have been good reason to avoid it. Several scholars have suggested recently that the Gospel of John was written primarily as a catechetical document for Jewish-Christians, prior to the fall of Jerusalem in A. If such was the case, the increasingly gentile congregations of Asia Minor might have viewed the Gospel of John as "obsolete. A Note. Polycarp is certainly not alone among the orthodox in not using John's Gospel. Interestingly, the popularity of John's Gospel and the connection of Polycarp with the apostle John both begin with Irenaeus.

It is he who first relates how Polycarp "reported his living with John and with the rest of the apostles who had seen the Lord, and how he remembered their words, and what the things were which he heard from them about the Lord, and about His miracles and about His teaching, how Polycarp received them from eyewitnesses of 'the word of life,' and proclaimed them all in harmony with the Scriptures" Eusebius, V. Irenaeus recalls all this from when he was "yet a boy," and it is entirely possible that he was mistaken about the "John" that Polycarp mentioned.

If, by the time of Irenaeus, the apostle John and "the Elder" had already been confused, then Irenaeus might easily have jumped to the wrong conclusion. He was endeavoring to rescue John from the Gnostics by providing an orthodox interpretation of his Word, and it was clearly an advantage if he could claim the testimony of one who had presumably known the apostle personally. Tertullian and Eusebius both rely upon the writings of Irenaeus for their association of Polycarp with the apostle John, so they can hardly be regarded as corroborating his testimony.

We do not mean to suggest that Irenaeus was purposely deceptive; he was probably mistaken and, in his zeal to protect the church from heresy, he allowed himself to believe what he thought that he remembered. What, then, did Irenaeus gain by tying Polycarp to Saint John? How do we know? There are several reasons, as well as historical evidence. Polycarp's Epistle to the Philippians circa A. And according to the portion of Charles Leach's book, Our Bible: Here, then, we get a link in our chain which connects us to the actual writers of the New Testament, and assures us, beyond all possibility of doubt, that the contents of our New Testament were in the hands of the men who lived before the last of the Apostles were dead.

This has been confirmed by other scholars as well see Holmes MW, ed. Baker Books, Grand Rapids, 3rd printingpp. Actually, an annotated version of Polycarp's Letter to the Philippians lists scriptural references that I put together is at the second half of the link to Epistle to the Philippians --and I believe it shows that Polycarp either quoted from or alluded to all 27 books of the New Testament. The idea that Polycarp of Asia Minor had the complete canon is not unique to me. Other scholars, such as the late James Moffatt, have recognized that the church in Asia Minor had the canon first: Was not the Apostolic Canon of scripture first formed The real thinking upon vital Christianity for centuries was done outside the Roman Church Excerpt of James Moffatt's review, p.

Bauer W. Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity, 2nd ed. Furthermore, notice that Polycarp wrote: Letter to the Philippians. American Edition, By writing that to the Philippians, Polycarp is confirming that they indeed must have actually had the scriptures including the New Testament which he quotes extensively. And this seem to be an admonition for future Christians to be well-versed in them as well. To the best of my knowledge, other than certain heretical scholars, all non-Gnostic groups that profess Christianity accept the same books of the New Testament. The same books that Polycarp alluded and made reference to.

Notice a relatively recently found and translated ancient document c. Weidman, Frederick W. Polycarp and John: So, John is shown to have taught Polycarp. A colleague of Polycarp's was Melito of Sardis. Hence between these writings, as well as the records from scripture as documented in the articles the Old Testament Canon and the New Testament Canonit is clear that Polycarp and those in Asia Minor had the complete Bible as those in the COGs and Protestants understand it. Polycarp wrote: And let the presbyters be compassionate and merciful to all, bringing back those that wander, visiting all the sick, and not neglecting the widow, the orphan, or the poor, but always "providing for that which is becoming in the sight of God and man ; " abstaining from all wrath, respect of persons, and unjust judgment; keeping far off from.

If then we entreat the Lord to forgive us, we ought also ourselves to forgive; for we are before the eyes of our Lord and God, and "we must all appear at the judgment-seat of Christ, and must every one give an account of himself. Let us be zealous in the pursuit of that which is good, keeping ourselves from causes of offence, from false brethren, and from those who in hypocrisy bear the name of the Lord, and draw away vain men into error Polycarp, Chapter VI. It may be of interest to note that the term sacraments is not part of Polycarp's description nor is it in the New Testament.

He and others observed Passover. However, beginning with possibly the Roman Bishop Sixtus there are no contemporaneous records, only a report decades later written by Irenaeuswhat is now called Easter began to be observed. First, it was apparently a change in date of Passover from the 14th of Nisan to a Sunday other changes happened over time. This is believed to have originally happened in Rome because there was a rebellion by Jews and that any distancing between Jews and Christians seemed physically advantageous at least to some in Rome.

Irenaeus claimed that Anicetus of Rome who argued with Polycarp was simply following previous Roman bishops, beginning with Sixtusas Irenaeus around A. And the presbyters preceding Sorer in the government of the Church which thou dost now rule--I mean, Anicetus and Pius, Hyginus and Telesphorus, and Sixtus--did neither themselves observe it [after that fashion], nor permit Christian harmony dating. st. polycarp of smyrna with them to do so Irenaeus. Polycarp of Smyrna went to Rome to deal with various heretics there and he tried to persuade the bishop not to switch Passover to Easter Sunday.

Irenaeus records this: And when the blessed Polycarp was sojourning in Rome in the time of Anicetus, although a slight controversy had arisen among them as to certain other points…For neither could Anicetus persuade Polycarp to forego the observance [in his own way], inasmuch as these things had been always observed by John the disciple of our Lord, and by other apostles with whom he had been conversant; nor, on the other hand, could Polycarp succeed in persuading Anicetus to keep [the observance in his way], for he maintained that he was bound to adhere to the usage of the presbyters who preceded him. And in this state of affairs they held fellowship with each other; and Anicetus conceded to Polycarp in the Church the celebration of the Eucharist, by way of showing him respect Irenaeus.

This also shows that Rome did not have dominion over the faithful as many now act like that it did. Over time, instead of being a holy day in memorial to Christ's sacrifice, the Greco-Roman Easter became a resurrection holiday for the Romans and those who followed their lead. But Easter-Sunday was simply not part of the faith of the true second century Christians in Asia Minor, including Polycarp, as Polycrates testified. The last words of his response to Roman bishop Victor about changing the date of Passover to what became Easter Sunday was: I, therefore, brethren, who have lived sixty-five years in the Lord, and have met with the brethren throughout the world, and have gone through every Holy Scripture, am not affrighted by terrifying words.

For those greater than I have said ' We ought to obey God rather than man. Letter to Victor. As quoted by Eusebius. Church History. Book V, Chapter From what appears to have happened in the mid-2nd century, Polycarp left Rome. And Polycarp was probably disgusted with Rome. This may be why he why or his associate Papias Holmes, p. Irenaeus wrote: Such, then, being the state of the case, and this number being found in all the most approved and ancient copies [of the Apocalypse], and those men who saw John face to face bearing their testimony [to it]; while reason also leads us to conclude that the number of the name of the beast, [if reckoned] according to the Greek mode of calculation by the [value of] the letters contained in it, will amount to six hundred and sixty and six.

Lateinos Lateinos has the number six hundred and sixty-six; and it is a very probable [solution], this being the name of the last kingdom" Irenaeus. Against Heresies. I do not believe that Polycarp was at all pleased with the Roman Bishop Anicetus when he left Rome as Irenaeus suggested earlier. I believe this was passed on the the leadership in Asia Minor which is why they sided with Polycrates against Bishop Victor on the Sunday Passover proposal. More information can be found in the article Location of the Early Church: Polycarp's position on the 'Easter Sunday" is markedly different from that of most ProtestantRoman CatholicEastern Orthodox churches or instead is more consistent with that of the Continuing Church of God.

Polycarp was a Heretic Fighter At risk of repeating statements that are in other portions of this article, since they are basically intended to stand alone, I would like to discuss Polycarp and his role in trying to stop heretics. Polycarp was an old man when he finally visited Rome. It took months to get there from Smyrna at that time, and this would have been a physically difficult trip for Polycarp. However, there were apparently so many heresies originating in Rome, that he felt that as the senior leader of the true Church, that he needed to personally try to deal with them.

In the late 2nd Century, the Catholic historian Irenaeus recorded that the Bishops of Rome had problems with them and that both John and Polycarp strongly renounced the Gnostic heretics: Valentinus came to Rome in the time of Hyginus, flourished under Pius, and remained until Anicetus. Cerdon, too…Marcion, then, succeeding him, flourished under Anicetus. To these things all the Asiatic Churches testify, as do also those men who have succeeded Polycarp down to the present time -- a man who was of much greater weight, and a more stedfast witness of truth, than Valentinus, and Marcion, and the rest of the heretics.

He it was who, coming to Rome in the time of Anicetus caused many to turn away from the aforesaid heretics to the Church of God, proclaiming that he had received this one and sole truth from the apostles John, the disciple of the Lord…exclaiming, "Let us fly, lest even the bath-house fall down, because Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, is within. ValentinusCerinthusand Marcion are considered by Catholics and others to have been Gnostic heretics, while HyginusPiusand Anicetus were claimed bishops of Rome. Thus these quotes from Irenaeus show that the supposed Roman bishops did not have a higher leadership role than Polycarp of Smyrna had, because it apparently took the stature of the visiting Polycarp to turn many Romans away from the Gnostic heretics.

The other reality is that according to Tertullian, it took the Church of Rome decades before they got rid of those heretics Tertullian. The Prescription against Heretics, Chapter Polycarp did not resolve this conflict of dates, but he did reconcile the people involved. He explained that the Scripture says we should not judge anyone with respect to meat or drink or in regard to feast days of the new moon. What good is a feast leavened with malice and contention? Why should Christians observe any exterior custom which undermines faith and love between brothers? That is more important than either the feasting of the fasting.

He urged, "Loving the brotherhood and being attached to one another, joined together in truth, exhibiting the meekness of the Lord in your intercourse with one another and despising no one" is of the utmost importance. His attitude healed this serious breach between Eastern and Western churches for over a generation. His long-cultivated humility was again demonstrated on the day of his execution. The soldiers bundled Polycarp up in robes to protect him from the cold and mounted him on a donkey to lead him to the city stadium where the festival of Commune Asiae, a major occasion of Emperor worship and commemorative games, was being celebrated in Smyrna.

A recent plague and earthquake had convinced the people that the gods were angry about Christians existing in the city. Therefore, a number of Christians were being given the opportunity to declare "Caesar is Lord" and sacrifice to his image -- or else be tortured to death. Some of the Christians were beaten with whips until "their bellies popped open exposing their innards". Others were pressed into a bed of spikes till pierced through and left writhing on display around the stadium. A young Christian noble named Germanicus fought off the wild beasts so heroically that the proconsul, Statius Quadratus, had the animals leased and offered the youth another chance, reasoning, "You are too young to waste the good life ahead of you.

If you'll just deny this Christ, you can live. The cat bit into his shoulder, unsheathed its claws and set its hind legs churning. In contrast to Germanicus, consider Quintus, a Phrygian, who had approached the Proconsul and voluntarily put himself forward as a Christian. When he saw the lion enter the arena he cowered.

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