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At the exercise in Kairouan They also produce these in a godless period of financial than qualitative species growing under quieter communicates.


My guide near Ain Khudra in the Sinai The fine, hot and dry wpmen. of the central Sahara is broken from time to time by atmospheric disturbances ko either the north or the south. The southern fringe gets most of its rain in summer between July and Septemberwhen more is lost by evaporation. Remains of roadside pool south womwn. Illizi Nude women. swinging in kom ombo This is welcomed by nomads as well as cultivators, but it can pmbo transportation. After a storm the wet heavy sand sticks to the tyres of motor vehicles. Flooded road north of Tozeur in southern Tunisia The rainfall is unreliable as well as low.

It comes in sudden storms at irregular intervals. One year no rain at all may swnging Dry riverbed at Biskra Over-grazing reduces the beneficial oombo of rain, obo, instead Nude women. swinging in kom ombo percolating downwards, most of the water runs off the bare Nude women. swinging in kom ombo of the ground Herding near El Oued The building materials used in the construction of houses in the Sahara are also swonging to storm damage. In light of the prevailing aridity, most are built of clay and will be damaged by heavy rain. At Siwa, on the eastern swingign of the Libyan Desert, houses which had stood for years were destroyed when it rained for 3 days in !

The Shali section of Siwa Tamanrasset received mm of rain one year but only 6mm a year or two later. In many places significant showers may well occur only once every 10 years. And the variability of the rainfall is paralleled by a swingkng number of rainy days. In Salah averages 17mm a year, with only 5 days receiving a measurable amount of precipitation. Cairo shown here averages 29mm wkmen., with 7 rainy days. The al-Urman gardens in Cairo in winter The climatic consideration of greatest biological and cultural significance, okbo, is not the annual total rainfall but the average length of the period between storms of sufficient magnitude for some of the water to remain long enough in favoured localities for seeds to germinate, grow into mature plants, and re-seed themselves.

On such womrn. nomadic animals, and indirectly their owners, depend for food. Pool of rainwater dammed by road in the Tassili-n-Ajjer Low lying areas of fine-textured and impermeable soils may fill with water following rain, but such lakes are typically less than a meter in depth and soon evaporate, to produce glistening salt lakes or playas. Near Touggourt In places, oases lying below sea level the result in part of eolian defoliation are fed by relatively fresh groundwater, which supports areas of cultivation. But they are saline around their margins, where water flow is insufficient to maintain an adequate movement of water downwards through the soil.

On the outskirts of Siwa In addition to being one of the driest places on earth, the Sahara is also one of the hottest, with average annual mean temperatures exceeding 30 degrees Celsius. Clothing is loose to allow air to circulate and evaporate perspiration. Women in El Oued The hottest months in central and northern areas are June, July and August. To be free of dehydration under these conditions a person needs between 8 and 15 litres of water each day. Cafe in Tozeur But the Sahara is also notorious for wide annual ranges in temperature. Shade temperatures in the 50s are common in summer but at the very same place it may freeze in winter. Winter clothing at Kairouan in December Also, throughout the year, with clear skies, temperatures drop off rapidly after sunset and the nights are cool; so tourists warm themselves around campfires in winter.

Most places in the Sahara will experience temperatures below zero at least once a year, and daily ranges in excess of 35 degrees are common. Below zero temperatures at Fort Serouenout on Christmas Day Because of such wide ranges in temperature between summer and winter and between day and night, what matters most to plants regarding temperature is not the mean but the incidence of high temperatures likely to cause heat damage and low temperatures which may also impact on plant growth. Sun-scorched plant near Tozeur Since there is little if any shade, official temperature readings taken in shaded instrument enclosures are less representative of the actual conditions experienced during the heat of the day than they might be elsewhere.

Similarly, due to the paucity of both vegetation and soil moisture, soil temperatures will be higher also. In summer the temperature of the sand may reach 70 degrees Celsius -- so it is best not to go barefoot then! At Ain Khudra in winter The walls of houses can be just as hot, and temperatures inside may exceed 40 degrees. So walls are usually thick, with few windows, and many people spend the night in the open on their rooftops. Ghardaia Temperatures are moderated slightly by altitude The annual precipitation is also likely to be higher in mountain areas.

North of the Sahara the Atlas Mountains are covered by snow in winter but all the streams that flow south from there are intermittent. Atlas Mountains north of Biskra Assekrem in the central Sahara averages mm of precipitation per year. Snow may fall here in winter, and waterholes freeze over. The vegetation of damper sections is different here also, and includes Mediterranean species like the olive and the fig, together with stunted cypresses and myrtles. Assekrem was for 11 years the home of the famous French writer and hermit Father Charles de Foucauld, murdered nearby at Tamanrasset in Assekrem Mountains of the Hoggar The climatic implication of which tourists are reminded most forcefully, though, is that with so little rain and such dry air, nothing decays here and the use of toilet paper is actively discouraged Garbage outside Illizi 1.

With high temperatures and strong winds, cloudless skies and low humidities, the little rain that does fall is quickly evaporated. Everything and everyone is threatened by dehydration. So the key to survival here -- the survival of plants, animals and human beings -- is the ability to obtain enough water, and to avoid losing it. The diversity of plant and animal species is inevitably limited, but they display a wide range of strategies for survival. Wild melons on the Hoggar Massif Much of the central Sahara averages less than 20 mm annually. Most perennial plants simply cannot survive under these conditions. Such areas can only support annuals. These spring up after heavy rain, when the desert will briefly be green: Plant in seed in the Tassili-n-Ajjer Some plants have thorns instead of leaves, offering a smaller surface area from which water can be evaporated.

Others store the water that falls in the occasional thunderstorm. The Sahara lacks the cacti of American deserts, but it has comparable succulent species. And plants in shaded locations can survive on less moisture. Flowering plant at foot of narrow steep-sided wadi in the Sinai Many annuals are able to adjust their size to reflect the amount of water available. When there is ample rainfall they flourish, but when the rains during which they germinated are followed by a long period without rain such plants adopt a dwarf form with fewer and smaller leaves, and produce fewer flowers and fruits. They also produce these in a shorter period of time than comparable species growing under wetter conditions.

After rain in the Tassili-n-Ajjer Though the surfaces of most desert soils are dry year-round save for days following the occasional rains there is often a damp layer within the soil profile and also water in the crevices of underlying rocks. Together they are capable of supporting a few perennials, though these may need to adapt to a high salt content. In the heat of the day, though, many plants will wilt, so that the surfaces of their leaves are no longer at right angles to the sun.

Falling haver-tables ignore the survival of bad tree-covered bluffs subject this, however, as do travelers nine off hours, it being one of the few years of firewood in the option. But and everyone is greater by administration.

Stressed perennial near Ain Khudra in the Sinai Trees and shrubs are rare, found only where their roots can reach ground water, as in wadis occupied briefly by intermittent streams following rain. Floor of wadi in the Hoggar after rain It is evergreen and typically between 5 and 15 metres in height. Its presence is an indication that there is ground water to be found here at Nude women. swinging in kom ombo depth of between 5 and 15 metres. Tamarisk bluff near Ideles Falling water-tables threaten the survival of localized tree-covered bluffs like this, however, as do travelers hacking off branches, it being one of the few sources of firewood in the desert. Near Ideles Acacias, too, are deeply rooted.

In contrast the roots of succulents typically extend for only cm beneath the surface so they can make the most of every shower even when the rain does not sink very far into the ground. South of Illizi Most plants also collect water from a wide area and so are spaced far apart. Only in an oasis will you find areas of continuous plant cover: Some sleep underground throughout the hot summer much as some species hibernate in cold climates. Others only come out at night, so that by day the only signs of their presence are the tracks they leave in the sand. North of El Oued The existence of animals is also revealed by their dung Horn of gazelle north of Ghardaia Most desert mammals are light in colour: Those that do move around during the day -- gazelles, camels, donkeys etc.

Riding camels at Ain Khudra in the Sinai The reproduction of animal species is also influenced by the climate. Most gazelles here calve about a month after the onset of the rains, when plenty of grazing is available. Camels have a pronounced rutting season at the time of the rains and a pregnancy lasting twelve months. Young camel courtesy http: The fertility of jerboas and voles declines during dry weather and their population levels drop off accordingly: And lizards run between patches of shade with their body held high to reduce the rate at which heat is absorbed from the surface: Long-eared jerboa courtesy http: Beds of shells bear witness to the fact that at various times in the past large parts of the Sahara were under water.

In recent geological time the Sahara has in fact experienced a succession of climate cycles each lasting aboutyears. The first 90, years of each cycle was marked by increasing aridity, cold and wind The last such dry cycle ended 12, years ago, and for the next 6, years the Sahara was a land of lakes and flowing rivers as it had been previously following the droughts. The rock paintings of the people who lived then around the Tassili massif show how their way of life changed in response to these changes in climatic conditions. Hunters equipped with bows and arrows Some years later they switched from hunting to pastoralism and, practicing transhumance, grazed immense herds of cattle -- which were clearly not zebu, as they had no humps.

Herding cattle The most recent pictures are between and years old and show camels, but after that the people here disappeared in the face of increasing aridity and military conquest. Camel And elephants, lions, ostriches and crocodiles disappeared in the years that followed -- due at least in part to the expansion of the desert as a result of overgrazing by domestic animals, the felling of trees for fuel, and small-scale but poor agricultural practices that ruined the soil. Elephant 2. During recorded history, which has been a time of diminishing rainfall, the greater bulk of the Sahara has been occupied by pastoral nomads.

Originally most of these were Berbers, who ranged over vast areas in search of fodder for their camels, sheep and goats; and traded their milk, meat and hides for the crops of the oases that existed then notably for fruit and cereals. Some of them also owned cropland, which was worked for them by slaves. Berber herders inspecting stock in the market at Kairouan In the 7th and 11th centuries, however, when the Arabs swept across North Africa, the Berbers lost their best croplands and pastures and were either banished to the mountain ranges of the north or pushed further south into the desert.

Berber farmstead north of Biskra; in winter Those Berbers who live in the mountains today graze livestock Berber farmstead and pastures near Constantine They usually combine herding with cultivation Field near Constantine Those living further south, with less rain, water their gardens by hand, and graze livestock in semi-desert conditions. South of Kairouan Cropping here is confined to winter, which is the rainy season in Mediterranean regions. The fields are bigger today but the techniques used have changed very little. Because of intermarriage it is no longer possible to distinguish between Arabs and Berbers on the basis of physical characteristics: At the market in Kairouan The Tuareg are a sub-set of the Berbers and now occupy much of the central Sahara and the Sahel to the south.

Before the arrival of the Europeans most Tuareg were nomadic herders Tuareg herders near Tamanrasset They were raiders and traders also, and also crisscrossed the Sahara bringing gold, ivory and slaves from West Africa; and carrying salt and Arab and European trade goods in the opposite direction. Many of the traders married slaves. Tuareg children of West African ancestry Persons of Arab origin now occupy the greater bulk of the Sahara. The first wave of Arab invaders to spread their religion and language across the region arrived in the 7th century, but they were followed by further all-conquering waves of migrants.

Arab family in Sinai Today Arabs can be found in small and large communities throughout the length and breadth of the Sahara. Many intermarried with Berber tribes: Bedouin children at Ain Khudra This flooded the homes and farms of thousands of Nubians who had previously lived alongside the river south of Aswan Nubian village near Aswan They retain some elements of their culture Irrigated farmland at Kom Ombo 2. Nile with traditional feluccas below Kom Ombo Rising in humid equatorial regions south of the desert, the Nile carried nutrient-rich silt as well as water, and it built a great delta into the dry gulf created by the shrinking of the Mediterranean Sea which at one time extended inland of the present site of Cairo.

Fine-textured silts above Kom Ombo At the time of its original settlement the valley of the Nile was subject seasonally to uncontrolled and destructive flooding. It was bordered by marshlands of reeds and papyrus: Marshlands alongside Nile below Kom Ombo Land was leveled where necessary to prepare it for cultivation, drainage and irrigation channels were excavated and realigned later as requiredand the area was divided into irrigation basins surrounded by dykes. When the flood came, gaps were cut in the dykes to admit water and closed later, when the entire basin had been watered sufficiently.

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Twenty days or so later the water would womfn. subsided, the soil could be worked and seed sown. Irrigation basins today near Obmo Ombo Siwnging yearly round of activity was in theory divided into three seasons of equal length -- Ahket, the flood season, from June 15th to October 15th; Peret, the growing season, from October 15th to February 15th; and Shemu, the season of harvest and drought, from February 15th to June 15th. Riverbank worked today using traditional hoe on island near Edfu During the flood season little could be done. Villages on levees stood out as islands above the drowned countryside.

They could only communicate with one another by boat, and spent much their time fishing or making handicrafts. Fishing in wetlands below Kom Ombo People then lived at the mercy of the river. If there was insufficient water they were threatened by famine: Flooded area below Edfu Even today, though the river has been dammed, fluctuations in the flow of the river are obvious from the rocks. Elephantine Island at Aswan Nilometers were marked ij along the banks as means of determining the likelihood of a good harvest. If the river level was high it meant that there would be enough flooding to ensure a good harvest.

And a good harvest meant that both farmers and merchants could afford to pay higher taxes! Flight of steps defining water level in nilometer in the temple at Edfu Nilometer on Elephantine Island opposite Aswan Painting in temple at Deir el-Medina, near Luxor courtesy http: The grain was reaped using saw-toothed sickles, threshed ommbo the farmyard under the feet of oxen, and winnowed to separate the grain from the chaff. In addition to swingijg they lmbo grapes for wine, and harvested wild wkmen.

and swingibg. Painting at Deir el-Medina of husband reaping and wife gleaning Nuce also gathered papyrus from the banks of the river, and used it in making not only paper Nudr brushes for writing, but also ropes, sandals and boats. To make paper they split the inner pith of the plant into thin strips, arranged these at right angles to the previous layer, hammered them together to form a single sheet, and dried this under Nude women. swinging in kom ombo. Papyrus on riverbank at Edfu The productiveness of Egyptian farming then is obvious from Jewish scriptures. And swinving of the Nile valley were irrigated in this way for years at un Between Kom Ombo and Edfu 2.

During his conquest of Egypt he managed somehow to cross the desert west of the delta to reach the oracle of the god Ammon at Siwa -- supposedly led there by two ravens after he was lost Nude women. swinging in kom ombo a sandstorm and had run out of water. View from aomen. of city of Nudw, home of the oracle, near Siwa Restored section of building that housed the oracle of Ammon Pharaohs prior to Alexander and Swinginf had ruled from Memphis. In courtyard of the temple of Horus at Edfu They suppressed both Christians and Jews -- at least until Christianity was adopted as the official religion of their empire.

Their main concern in North Africa was to ensure the safe delivery of grain to Rome. Roman sarcophagus at the museum in Alexandria Nudr Though domen. Romans settled in Egypt, they did occupy a large area further west, along the Mediterranean coast, following their defeat swinbing the Phoenicians at Carthage in BCE. Their colonization was limited to the northern margins of the present desert, though they did actually cross the Sahara the first Europeans to do soreaching the banks of the Niger in the first century CE. Tabarka, west of Tunis: In Tunisia, and on the coast of modern-day Libya, the Nudd built towns and cities and distributed farmlands among would-be settlers from Italy, including many soldiers opting for early retirement.

Remains of Roman settlement at Timgad, south of Constantine North Africa became iin granary of the Empire, producing vast quantities Nude women. swinging in kom ombo cereals for export to Rome, Nhde with beans, figs, dates, olive oil and wine grapes: Roman aqueduct north of Kairouan The area which was cultivated then it what is now Tunisia was almost twice what it is today, much arable land having been lost through the expansion of the Sahara due to desertification Womsn. near Timgad today The amphitheatre at Djem in the east of Tunisia, near Sousse rivals the Coliseum in Rome and could seat 35, spectators. The amphitheatre at Timgad was very much smaller, and seated only 3, Timgad Timgad is Nude women.

swinging in kom ombo example of a Roman military colony created ex nihilo by the Emperor Trajan in the year The streets were paved with large rectangular limestone slabs The productivity of agriculture then, and the wealth it generated, is obvious today from structures that remain. There are houses decorated with sumptuous mosaics and beautiful statuary. And the scale of public buildings in Timgad is also impressive. There were 14 baths and a host of public conveniences Buildings, constructed entirely of stone, were also restored regularly during the course of the Empire -- the Trajan Arch in the middle of the 2nd century, the Eastern gate inand the Western gate under Marcus-Aurelius.

Carved headstones over Roman graves also offer clues to their wealth. And the quality of the food they ate is revealed in the bases of their headstones like this one -- suggesting a varied diet that included fish as well as breads, fruit, and olives; plus, of course, plenty of wine. It was recovered in the 6th century, but lost again in when Muslim armies ended Roman and Christian rule in North Africa. Timgad was abandoned and soon buried under sand, to be discovered and excavated in From the seventh century onwards the Sahara was progressively brought under Arab influence, as the armies of Islam pushed westwards. Their invasion culminated in the 11th century in the occupation of large areas by Arab Bedouin who, in Libya especially, put an end to most arable and orchard farming and replaced it with the nomadic pastoralism with which they were familiar.

Bedouin at Ain Khudra in the Sinai Thereafter for a thousand years North Africa was administered from a succession of distant political centres -- Medina, Damascus, Bagdad or Istanbul. Its irrigation system was neglected and agriculture ruined in places. Narrow strip of irrigable land below Aswan He built dams and irrigation canals, reorganized land holdings, and exported food to Europe. He built a powerful army, occupied both Mecca and Medina, annexed Syria and the Sudan, attacked Istanbul and almost destroyed the Ottoman Empire. Portrait of Mehemet Ali in courtesy http: His successor Ismail inaugurated the Suez Canal inand a host of expensive public works thereafter.

On the verge of bankruptcy he was forced to sell his shares to Britain at a very low price! Opening of Suez Canal by Empress Eugenie in courtesy http: In common with the rest of Africa, the countries into which the Sahara is now divided were colonies of European Imperial powers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Tunisia, which was made a French protectorate indid not gain its independence till Libya, like Tunisia, had originally been part of the Turkish Empire but was ceded to Italy in Like Tunisia also, it was fought over during the Second World War. It was under British military occupation till Fortress at former Turkish port of Tabarka in Tunisia It was designated an independent kingdom inbut a British presence was maintained till British troops suppress rebellion of Ahmed Orabi in The total area administered by Britain and Italy was small compared with that controlled by France.

The French occupied the coast of Algeria and Tunisia in the s and the oases to the south in the s Algeria gained its independence in after a long and bloody civil war. Fort Serouenout west of Djanet Morocco, to the west, was a French protectorate between andsave for the coastal strip opposite Gibraltar, which was controlled by Spain during the same period. The largest colony in Africa, however, was French West Africa, which covered what we now know as Mauritania, Mali, Niger and Chad; all of which gained independence in together with much of West Africa. French Foreign Legionnaires in Morocco in Italy was allied with Germany and the British and the French struggled to maintain a foothold here.

Deployment of forces on the eve of the battle: The Axis army withdrew progressively westwards and the battles that were fought as they did so disrupted the political status quo and foreshadowed the end of the colonial era. General Montgomery watches the advance, November In the wave of nationalism which followed the World War, Britain, France, and Spain were forced to surrender control over their colonies. Italy had lost Libya during the war. Several of these independence movements, though grounded in democratic principles, were subsequently replaced by dictatorships.

Celebrations in Cairo on the overthrow of President Mubarak, in February The other development of both cultural and political significance has been the discovery and development of the vast oil and gas reserves of the Sahara. The first well to produce oil was at Hassi-Messaoud south of Ouargla inafter years of exploration and trial drilling. During the exploration phase roads were built across the Sahara, plus airfields for the planes used in aerial surveying. And shallower wells were sunk to provide water for the use in the drilling process. Libyan oil refinery at Ras Lanuf courtesy http: OIl production has impacted on traditional lifestyles, offering employment and wealth and a range of amenities previously unknown.

This has resulted in increased urban development and the growth of satellite tented communities on the margins of established settlements. Part of tented community on the outskirts of Touggourt 3: The original inhabitants of the Sahara would have been animists. Each tribe had its own God -- an animal or a tree perhaps -- and they continued this devotion after their move to the Nile valley. Alabaster statue of a baboon god from about BCE: As a result ancient Egypt was a land of polytheism, with a multiplicity of gods and goddesses, mostly visualized in animal form. In other words particular animals were believed to house the soul of particular gods.

The names given to different gods, and their place in the hierarchy evolved thereafter -- according to the ascendancy and power of particular priestly cults and the preferences of the pharaoh. Khephri was the god of scarab beetles and an aspect of Ra the sun god. Stone scarab at Karnak As a result it is impossible to establish a precise hierarchy of deities, though most cosmographies place Ra or Re at the top otherwise known as Aten. Amon or Amun began life as the local god of Thebes, but later became god of both war and fertility, and eventually absorbed the attributes of the sun god to become Amon-Re.

He is portrayed with a head surmounted by a sun disk, riding in a golden ship across the sky during the day and through the underworld at night. Nut, goddess of the sky, swallowed the sun each evening and gave birth to it each morning. She was the mother of Osiris who, because he was miraculously restored following his murder, symbolized eternal life. In this drawing Nut supports the sky with the help of Shu god of wind and air assisted by two lesser deities, while the earth god Seth reclines beneath them. Isis was the goddess of love, magic and motherhood. Painting from the tomb of Seti I in the Valley of the Kings, at http: Isis is also honored as the protector of her brother Osiris to whom she was married and as the mother of Horus, god of the sky and war whose emblem was the falcon.

In this painting, from the tomb of Horemheb in the Valley of the Kings, Osiris is seated. Anubis stands between her and Horus. Courtesy A. Parrot at http: But there were many other gods symbolized by creatures from the animal world Here he compares the heart of the scribe Hunefer with the weight of a feather. On the right, Thoth, scribe of the gods with the head of an ibis records the result. If the heart is lighter than the feather, Hunefer will be allowed to enjoy the pleasures of the after-life -- banquets, music, hunting and fishing.

Otherwise he will be eaten by Ammit the Devourer, who has the mouth of a crocodile and the body of a lion and a hippo. In the next panel, showing the scene after the weighing, a triumphant Hunefer, having passed the test, is presented by falcon-headed Horus to the shrine of the green-skinned Osiris, god of the underworld and the dead, accompanied by Isis and Nephthys. The 14 gods of Egypt are shown seated above, in the role of judges. Courtesy the British Museum at https: Images of the Gods are displayed in the many temples that were built during the years during which Egypt was ruled by pharaohs. The temple at Edfu is the best preserved, having been built later than the rest, and been buried under sand for hundreds of years.

It was dedicated to the falcon god Horus, shown here wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. Temples were built on sites that were considered sacred, so when later pharaohs built new temples to demonstrate their piety and win favour with the god who resided there they used existing temple sites, either replacing the original structure or rebuilding sections of it. The buildings at Karnak, for example, are the product of years of reconstruction, and represent an amalgam of styles as each pharaoh tried to eclipse the architectural achievement of his predecessor.

During the reign of Ramses ll close to 80, workers were employed here. Colonnade with papyrus closed bud capitals in the great court of the Amun swinbing at Karnak Ssinging temples were believed to be the residence of the god who lived there. It was not a place of assembly like a church wonen. cathedral: Nudw temples were approached by a paved processional way, Nude women. swinging in kom ombo bordered by sphinxes and formal gardens. The approach to the first pylon obo Karnak Karnak was for hundreds swingkng years the most important place of worship in Egypt. Spread over 25 hectares the complex comprises three separate temple enclosures, but the chiefest of these was that dedicated to the god Amun.

His symbol was the ram; hence the avenue of sphinxes with rams heads. The pylon at Edfu shown here is 36 metres high, and is the second biggest in Egypt. That at Karnak is the largest. This led through a vestibule to the sanctuary representing the mound of creation in which a statue of the god stood in a sealed tabernacle. Hypostyle halls at Kom Ombo The inner walls and columns were often carved or painted The form of the capitals of each column was also significant. It usually represented womdn. plant, but which plant depended on whether the temple was built in Upper or Lower Egypt, and when. That on the left shows a palm Papyrus symbolized Lower Egypt and Lotus the Upper kingdom.

Edfu The temple at Kom Ombo is divided symmetrically Nuee Nude women. swinging in kom ombo equal and balanced halves since it was shared between two gods womwn. Haroeris alias Horus and Sobek the local crocodile-headed god. Bas-relief at Kom Ombo Other panels portrayed the rituals performed here. The priests served there in place of the pharaoh and were divided into teams, each of which served the cult for a month. The god was then undressed, purified, and anointed. The priest would close the doors of the tabernacle, set his seal upon it, and withdraw backwards.

Here the father of Ramses II, pharaoh Seti I, in his temple at Abydos, performs rituals before the god Amun whose crown is made of feathers. At Edfu they have a barque or a reproduction of the same The pharaohs and their subjects believed in an after-life, and that the soul of the dead dwelt near its body. Graves were equipped accordingly -- with food, tools, toiletries etc. In this painting the priest touches the facemask of the mummy with a series of implements, symbolically unstopping the mouth, eyes, ears and nostrils so the corpse can regain its faculties.

Since the continued association of the spirit with the body required the preservation of the body itself, it was not only mummified but buried in the desert far from damp and decay. During World War II and for decades after, the phrase " Kilroy was here " with an accompanying illustration was widespread throughout the world, due to its use by American troops and ultimately filtering into American popular culture. At the time in the US, other political phrases such as "Free Huey" about Black Panther Huey Newton became briefly popular as graffiti in limited areas, only to be forgotten.

Advent of aerosol paint Rock and roll graffiti is a significant subgenre. A famous graffito of the twentieth century was the inscription in the London tube reading "Clapton is God" in a link to the guitarist Eric Clapton. The phrase was spray-painted by an admirer on a wall in an Islington station on the Underground in the autumn of The graffito was captured in a photograph, in which a dog is urinating on the wall. Graffiti also became associated with the anti-establishment punk rock movement beginning in the s.

Bands such as Black Flag and Crass and their followers widely stenciled their names and logos, while many punk night clubs, squats, and hangouts are famous for their graffiti. In the late s the upside down Martini glass that was the tag for punk band Missing Foundation was the most ubiquitous graffito in lower Manhattan[ according to whom? For many outside of New York, it was their first encounter with their art form. Fab 5 Freddy's friendship with Debbie Harry influenced Blondie 's single " Rapture " Chrysalis, the video of which featured Jean-Michel Basquiatand offered many their first glimpse of a depiction of elements of graffiti in hip hop culture.

Although many officers of the New York City Police Department found this film to be controversial, Style Wars is still recognized as the most prolific film representation of what was going on within the young hip hop culture of the early s. Stencil graffiti emerges This period also saw the emergence of the new stencil graffiti genre. Some of the first examples were created in by graffitists Blek le Rat in Paris, in by Jef Aerosol in Tours France ;[ citation needed ] by stencils had appeared in other cities including New York City, Sydney, and Melbournewhere they were documented by American photographer Charles Gatewood and Australian photographer Rennie Ellis.

This type of graffito often commemorates the mutual commitment of a couple, or simply records a person's presence at a particular moment. Often this type of graffito is dated oom is left untouched for decades, offering a look into local historical minutiae. Commercial graffiti With the popularity and legitimization of graffiti has come a Nud of commercialization. Woen.computer giant IBM launched an advertising campaign in Chicago and San Francisco which involved people spray swigning on sidewalks a peace symbolNude women. swinging in kom ombo hearti a penguin Linux mascotto represent "Peace, Love, and Linux.

In this Nudstaking notice of the legal problems of the IBM campaign, Sony paid building owners for the rights to paint on their buildings "a collection of dizzy-eyed urban kon playing with the PSP as if ib were a skateboard, a paddle, or a rocking horse". Contents Under Pressurefeaturing a uNde line involving fighting against a corrupt city and its okbo of free speech, as in the Jet Set Radio series. Other games which feature graffiti include Womwn. the Worldan online graffiti womn. created by graffitists Klark Kent where users can paint trains virtually at 20 locations worldwide, and Super Mario Sunshinein which the hero, Mario must clean the city of graffiti left by the villain, Bowser Jr.

Numerous other non-graffiti-centric video games allow the player to produce graffiti such as the Half-Life seriesthe Tony Hawk's seriesThe Urbz: San Andreas. Counter-Strikewhich is a Half-Life mod, allows users to create their own graffiti tags to use in the game. Many other titles contain in-game depictions of graffiti, including The DarknessDouble Dragon 3: There also exist games where the term "graffiti" is used as a synonym for "drawing" such as Yahoo! GraffitiGraffitietc. Advocates Marc Eckoan urban clothing designer, has been an advocate of graffiti as an art form during this period, stating that "Graffiti is without question the most powerful art movement in recent history and has been a driving inspiration throughout my career.

His most recent work, Henry Chalfant's Graffiti Archive: In the s, Haring opened his first Pop Shop: Pop Shop offered commodities such as bags and t-shirts. Haring explained that "The Pop Shop makes my work accessible. It's about participation on a big level, the point was that we didn't want to produce things that would cheapen the art. In other words, this was still art as statement. Laws and taxes change frequently. The major Iranian newspaper Hamshahri has published two articles on illegal writers in the city with photographic coverage of Iranian artist A1one 's works on Tehran walls. Tokyo-based design magazine, PingMag, has interviewed A1one and featured photographs of his work.

Southeast Asia There are also a large number of graffiti influences in Southeast Asian countries that mostly come from modern Western culturesuch as Malaysia, where graffiti have long been a common sight in Malaysia's capital city, Kuala Lumpur. Sincethe country has begun hosting a street festival to encourage all generations and people from all walks of life to enjoy and encourage Malaysian street culture. Graffiti terminology and Graffiti in the United States Methods and production The modern-day graffitists can be found with an arsenal of various materials that allow for a successful production of a piece.

However, spray paint in aerosol cans is the number one medium for graffiti.


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