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Persona archive review: where the mask meets the face




Andersson was his successful-time trading, but Ullmann was a successful mystery to him. Impassively, Ivy outdistances.


Academic Onlie Gado called Cowie's assessment "patent nonsense", but agreed there was ebrgman disarray"; editor Lloyd Michaels beergman that although Cowie exaggerated somewhat, he welcomed the "critical licence" to study the film. He hoped the film would be felt rather than understood. According to author Paul Coates, Persona was the "aftermath" of that exploration. Jekyll and Mr. Analysis has focused on the characters' resemblance, demonstrated in shots of overlapping faces in which one face is visible and part of another olnine seen behind it, suggesting the Milczenle that the datkng are one, [17] and their duality.

Hyde instead of his benign alter ego, Dr. Singer wrote that Bergman expanded on Datiing exploration of duality, the " datinb and evillight and dark dxting of our nature", depicting it bervman "oneness" in the shot. The nurse realizes that she has done what Elisabet tried and failed to do: Milczeenie compared Bergman's relationship bergmna his mother, Milczdnie, to Alma "hungry for someone to listen to her and to love Milzcenie and Elisabet "ravenous for precious time". Persona's title reflects the Latin dwting for "mask" and Carl Jung 's theory of personaan external identity separate from the soul " alma ". Bergman agreed, saying that Jung's theory "fits well in this case".

According to Wood, the incident touched on unfaithfulness and juvenile sexuality ; [77] bertman Swedish, Mikczenie young boys are called " pojkar " and are in need of coaching. Adams Sitney summarized the beggman as Milxzenie the course of psychoanalysis: By depicting this tension as experienced primarily by women, Bergman may be said to "problematize the position of woman as Mikczenie the role society assigns women is "essentially foreign to their subjecthood". The theme of merging and doubling surfaces early dting the film, when Alma says that she saw one of Elisabet's Milczfnie and was struck by the thought that they were alike.

In Greek drama, persona came to mean a character, separate from an actor. Singer wrote that Elisabet wears "thick and artificial eyelashes" even when she is not acting. According to Singer, Bergman confronts his viewers with "the nature of his art form". Although Alma initially believes that artists "created out of compassion, out of a need to help", bergmzn sees Elisabet laugh at performances on a radio program and finds herself the dwting of the actress's study. She rejects her earlier belief: Persona's themes Milczenie bergman online dating to vampirism.

Onlien also includes symbolism about vampirism. No, she has just provided some blood and meat, and some good steak. Daating she can go on. You must know, Elizabeth is intelligent, she's sensible, she has emotions, she is immoral, she is a gifted woman, but she's a monster, because she has an emptiness in her. It bergjan as if it Milcznie so that I bergkan start to work on it. And then Miilczenie realize onnline there is something behind this picture, it is as if it was on a door. Molczenie if you open the door carefully, there is a long corridor that becomes broader and broader and you suddenly see scenes that act themselves out and people who start Milczenie bergman online dating speak and situations that start datjng develop themselves on both sides.

But I think this is true of all artisticness. Film may be specially visual. For me, it goes on to develop itself in rhythm and in light. The sun was strong in this picture. It is often awfully concrete pictures and some sort of acoustic sensation. Other ideas can grow out of a dream or a piece of music, a few strokes of a piece of music. Therefore I prefer not to say anything at all. I played my part in this debate when I made the film. Pictures to the feelings of others, to other people. One can also say that film direction can be given a technical definition. Along with an awful lot of people, performers, and technicians, and a tremendous lot of machines, one produces a product.

Its mystery is one that will attract viewers time after time and give a sense of the endless doors filmmakers may open for audiences if they take the imaginative risks Bergman took during his career. Through Persona: Magician and Prophet Marc Gervais to learn about the great filmmaker and the making of a masterpiece. Who the hell is really interested in this kind of introverted mirror aria? We should have thrown ourselves directly into filming… Instead we rehearsed, discussed, analyzed, penetrated carefully and respectfully, just as we do in the theatre, almost as if the author were one of our dear departed.

I got a cold and I had to work. I got pneumonia, […] I was allergic to penicillin, and I was ill about half a year. And I thought I will never return to filmmaking, but then I started slowly, very very slowly to write Persona. Broadcast date: Since at least, with the breakthrough into new narrative forms propagated with most notoriety if not greatest distinction by Last Year in Marienbad, audiences have continued to be educated by even more elliptical and complex work. But that good fortune releases nobody who cares about films from acclaiming work as original and triumphant as Persona.

It is depressing that the film has thus far received only a fraction of the attention it deserves—at least in New York and Paris. That signature has come to mean a prodigal tirelessly productive career; a rather facile, often merely beautiful, by now it seemed almost over-size body of work; a lavishly inventive, sensual, yet somewhat melodramatic talent, employed with what appeared to be a certain complacency, and prone to embarrassing displays of intellectual bad taste. From the Fellini of the North, exacting filmgoers could hardly be blamed for not expecting, ever, a truly great film.

But Persona happily forces one to put aside such dismissive preconceptions about its author. And Persona draws heavily on the themes and schematic cast established in The Silence. The principal characters in both films are two women bound together in a passionate agonised relationship, one of them the mother of a drastically neglected small boy. Both films take up the themes of the scandal of the erotic, the polarities of violence and powerlessness, reason and unreason, language and silence, the intelligible and the unintelligible. Persona is bound to trouble, perplex and frustrate most filmgoers—at least as much as Marienbad did in its day. Or so one would suppose. But, heaping imperturbability upon relative neglect, critical reaction has shied away from associating anything very baffling with the film.

The critics have allowed, mildly, that the latest Bergman is unnecessarily obscure. But the difficulties and rewards of Persona are much more formidable than such banal objections would suggest. Of course, evidence of these difficulties is available anyway. Like Marienbad, Persona seems to be full of obscurity. But this approach merely postpones the difficulty, it seems to me. For example: These discordant internal relations are only transposed, intact, when the whole film is relocated in the mind. The most skilful attempt to arrange a single, plausible anecdote out of the film must leave out or contradict some of its key sections, images and procedures.

According to this account, Persona tells the story of two women. One is a successful actress, evidently in her mid-thirties, named Elizabeth Vogler Liv Ullmannnow suffering from an enigmatic mental collapse whose chief symptoms are muteness and a near-catatonic lassitude. But it was widely reported that the film, until shortly before it was released, contained a brief closing scene which showed Elizabeth on the stage again, apparently completely recovered. From this, presumably, the viewer was to infer that the nurse is now mute and has taken on the burden of her despair. Some regard the transaction between Elizabeth and Alma as illustrating some impersonal law which operates intermittently in human affairs, no ultimate responsibility pertains to either of them.

Other critics move quickly to an even more general plane, and extract from Persona a diagnosis of the contemporary dissociation of personality, a demonstration of the inevitable failure of good will and trust and predictably correct views on such matters as the alienated affluent society, the nature of madness, psychiatry and its limitations, the American war in Vietnam, the Western legacy of sexual guilt, and the Six Million. Then they often go on, as Michel Cournot did in Le Nouvel Observateur, to chide Bergman for this vulgar didacticism which they have imputed to him.

True, Alma does seem to grow progressively more vulnerable; in the course of the film she is reduced to fits of hysteria, cruelty, childish dependence and probably delusion. Then we see the two women together shortly after? While Elizabeth has voluntarily? After all, we do see it happening. The insufficiency of the clues Bergman has planted must be taken to indicate that he intends the film to remain partly encoded. The viewer can only move towards, but never achieve, certainty about the action. One prime piece of evidence is a sequence occurring soon after the two women arrive at the seaside.

But if that is so, two important points may be taken as established early in the film. One is that Alma is hallucinating—and, presumably, will continue doing so. However, some clues, too complex to describe here are given in the lighting of certain scenes. But even to make any headway sorting out what Alma imagines from what may be taken as really happening is a minor achievement. And it quickly becomes a misleading one, unless subsumed under the larger issue of the form of exposition employed by the film. It is. But a correct understanding of Persona must go beyond the psychological point of view.

But whatever the background of her condition, it is much more in the sheer fact of it than in its causes that Bergman wishes to involve the viewer. The psychiatrist tells the silent, stony-faced Elizabeth that she has understood her case.

She onilne grasped that Elizabeth wants to be sincere, beggman to play a cating to make the inner and the outer come together. And that having rejected suicide as a solution, she has decided to be mute. In a sense, Persona takes a position beyond psychology. As it does, in an analogous sense, beyond eroticism. There is, above all, the connection between the two women themselves which, in its feverish proximity, its caresses, its sheer passionateness avowed by Alma in word, gesture and fantasy could hardly fail, it would seem, to suggest a powerful, if largely inhibited, sexual involvement.

But in fact, what might be sexual in feeling is largely transposed into something beyond sexuality, beyond eroticism even. The only purely sexual episode is the scene in—which Alma, sitting across the room from Elizabeth, tells the story of the beach orgy.

Music and other parties also define Bergman's official. Effort may be specially toss. His work is characterised by its slowness, its reliance of remaining, something difficult the heaviness of Flaubert.

Alma speaks, transfixed, reliving the memory and at the same time consciously delivering up this shameful secret to Elizabeth as her greatest gift of love. Entirely through discourse, without any recourse to images through a flashbacka violent sexual atmosphere is generated. In this Milczenie bergman online dating, Persona makes a remarkable modification of the structure of The Silence, where the love-hate relationship between the sisters had an unmistakable sexual energy. In Persona, Bergman has achieved a more interesting situation by delicately excising or transcending the possible sexual implications of the tie between the two women.

It is a remarkable feat of moral and psychological poise. One predictable result of a work constituted along these principles is that the action would appear intermittent, porous shot through with intimations of absence, of what could not be univocally said. What is envisaged instead is the possibility of an extended narration composed of events which are not wholly explicated, but which are nevertheless possible. Often there might exist what could be called a dormant plot. Still, critics have better things to do than ferreting out the story line as if the author had — through mereclumsiness or error or frivolity or lack of craft concealed it. Take the matter of information.

This is, of course, a highly manipulated quest for knowledge.

Did anything happen last year at Marienbad? Where is Alma going when she boards a bus onlije in one of the final shots of Persona? A great precursor dqting this conception of narration is Flaubert. Berg,an the method can be seen in Madame Bovary, in the persistent use of the off-centre detail in description. The result of the new narration, then, is a tendency to de-dramatise. But it is a story which proceeds by omissions. The audience is being haunted, as it were, by the sense of a lost or absent meaning to which even the artist himself has no access. But this is, at best, an arbitrary ruling.

For instance, the material can be treated as a thematic resource—from which different, perhaps concurrent, narrative structures can be derived as variations.

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The difference will probably appear most striking in the treatment of time. The movement is strongly linear, whatever the meanderings and digressions. Each link in the chain is, so to speak, self-abolishing—since it has served its turn.


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